Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Do You Know How Much Protein You Need (and where to get it)?

There’s a lot of focus on protein these days but is it necessary to work so hard to meet your protein needs? Proteins do many, varied jobs in our bodies. Fat and protein can’t do these jobs. Proteins provide structure to our bones, teeth, and connective tissues. They are the enzymes that our intestines make to break down our nutrients so they can pass into the bloodstream. They are the antibodies that fight infections. They make and repair muscles.
With all that work to do, we need to get the right amount of protein each day. How much do you need? 

The average person needs 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. To run this calculation on yourself, take your weight in pounds and divide it by 2.2. This will give you your weight in kilograms (kg). Then multiply by 0.8 to get the grams of protein you need. Here’s an example:

150 pounds/2.2 = 68 kg
68 kg x 0.8 = 54 grams of protein a day.  

Let’s take a look at what that translate into for the average person:

Your Weight:                                   Your Protein Needs Per Day:
125#                                                               45 grams
150#                                                               54 grams
175#                                                               63 grams
200#                                                               72 grams
225#                                                               81 grams
250#                                                               90 grams
275#                                                               100 grams

But, athletes and older people may have higher protein needs. Elder adults should aim for 1.0 to 1.2 grams for each kilogram of body weight. Athletes should aim for 1.2 – 1.8 grams for each kilogram of body weight.

Athletes and Elder Adult Protein Needs:

Your Weight:                                   Your Protein Needs Per Day:
125#                                                               68 grams
150#                                                               81 grams
175#                                                               95 grams
200#                                                               109 grams
225#                                                               122 grams
250#                                                               136 grams
275#                                                               150 grams

Here are some high protein foods that make it easy to get your protein!

Foods High in Protein
·         3 ounces cooked poultry or beef          27 grams
·         3 ounces tuna, salmon, other fish        21 grams
·         ½ cup Greek yogurt                               12 - 14 grams
·         ½ cup cottage cheese                            14 grams
·         ½ cup tofu                                               10 grams
·         ½ cup cooked beans                               9 grams
·         1 cup of milk or soy milk                        8 grams
·         1 ounce of cheese                                    8 grams
·         ¼ cup or 1 ounce of nuts                         7 grams
·         1 egg                                                          6 grams
·         1 cup cooked pasta                                  6 grams

Timing and protein quality count too! Dairy, eggs, lean meats, and soy foods are generally the protein sources best used by the body. Spreading that protein out throughout the day at each meal and snack can help you hang on to your muscle strength if you’re older. For athletes, getting 25 – 30 grams within 2 hours after a training session may help maintain and build muscle.

What about high protein drinks and protein bars? I like people to focus on foods first. But if you have a poor appetite or just can’t eat enough of these foods, high protein drinks may do the trick. But it doesn’t have to be Ensure or a protein drink – something like good old Carnation Instant Breakfast can work just as well. The bottom line is to read food labels to find high protein foods you like!

Beth Kitchin, PhD, RDN
Assistant Professor
UAB Department of Nutrition Sciences

Follow me on Twitter: @DrBethK 

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

True or False: Hot Foods Cool You Down in the Summer

Can hot foods actually cool you down in the heat of the summer? Warm tea is a staple in India. Spicy foods abound in Mexico. So it makes sense to ask this question even though it sound counter intuitive.

It turns out folks may be on to something. If the conditions are right, hot foods may actually make you feel cooler.

Here’s how:

  •        Our bodies are really good at regulating our internal temperature. One of the main ways it does this is through sweat.
  •       In the case of hot beverages, it’s through the temperature receptors in the stomach. The hot beverage hits the stomach and your internal temperature increases about .5 degree Celsius (about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit). The body says “I’m heating up – I need to cool down”. To cool down, you start to sweat.
  •      With spicy foods, the end result is the same – increased sweating. But this time, it’s the receptors in the mouth that send the signal to the body that the temperature is rising. This is “gustatory sweating”.

·    But here’s the kicker: in order for sweating to cool us down, you’ve got to have air flow for the sweat to evaporate and cool you down. Humid air and too much clothing keeps the sweat from evaporating.

So, is there research that supports all this? There’s actually some from a researcher at the University of Sidney in Australia. Dr. Ollie Jay’s research shows that the cooling effect of the sweat outweighs the added heat of the hot beverage – as long as the sweat can evaporate.

So, go ahead and indulge in that hot coffee or spicy salsa this summer. Just make sure you’re catching a breeze at the same time! 

Beth Kitchin, PhD, RDN
Assistant Professor Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham 

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

How and What to Feed Your Kids

My nephew Hal (now an adult) eats his vegetables!
We've been doing Facebook Live sessions on Tuesday's on the Good Day Alabama show right before or after my nutrition segment. I always get a lot of really good questions from viewers. Today, a lot of people asked questions about getting kids to eat healthy and what to feed kids. When I was an undergrad in clinical nutrition, our textbook for pediatric nutrition was by Ellyn Satter. She's a registered dietitian and a social worker. She's pretty much the queen of child nutrition and her advice is practical, healthy, and based on science. One of my favorite things shes says is that parents are responsible for what foods are offered to the child while the child is responsible for how much they eat. She recommends offering children choices and then letting them decide among those choices.
 

 You can visit her wonderful website here: Ellyn Satter Institute

While child nutrition is not my expertise, I have learned a few things over the years - particularly the years I worked at Head Start: 


  • Children do like healthful foods - but you as the parent or other responsible adult need to offer the children healthy foods and have them available. I will never forget hearing a child say "Who doesn't love a grape? I just wish my mom would buy them!". 
  • Adults need to model healthful eating. You can't expect kids to eat healthy if you don't - so be a good role model.
  • Kids like to be involved in grocery shopping and food prep. Getting kids involved in the food prep process and trying a variety of foods at family meals can help kids learn to like healthful eating!
  • Don't make foods off limits. When you tell a child that a food is bad and they shouldn't eat it, it only makes them want it more. We adults are the same way! So let your kids have candy and chips - but as part of an overall healthy eating pattern. Read Ellyn Satter's advice on how to handle "forbidden foods" with kids so that they don't feel deprived but also learn to eat healthy foods too!  

 We'll be talking about this topic more on Good Day Alabama so keep watching!  

Beth Kitchin PhD RDN
Assistant Professor Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham


Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Kids Can Drink Juice Without Weight Gain



There’s been a backlash against juice over the last couple of years. Why? Well, juice has as many calories per ounce as soda. And those calories come from fructose – the natural sugar that gives fruit all of its calories. Juice became a victim of the unfounded hysteria over sugar and fructose. I’ve heard people say “juice is bad for you”. Many people have told me they’ve given up juice and just eat whole fruit. That’s not a bad idea – because whole fruit does have way more fiber in it than juice. But do you have to completely eliminate juice from your diet? Especially if you like it? I’ve always told people that drinking juice is fine – and now I have some research to back it up!

Some health experts have been telling parents not to give their kids juice because it can lead to obesity. Now of course, making a blanket statement like that without any attention to how much juice is pretty ridiculous. This week, an analysis of juice studies published in the journal Pediatrics shows that juice in moderation is not associated with weight gain in children. The researchers analyzed data from eight studies for a total of 34,470 boys and girls under 18. They found only a slight associated increase in BMI (body mass index) in children age 1 to 6 who drank 6 to 8 ounces of 100% fruit juice a day. This slight increase did not put children at risk for obesity. In children and adolescents age 7 to 18, there was no link at all between fruit juice and weight gain. 

So, here are some guidelines for drinking juice:

  • Look for 100% fruit juice

  • Don’t drink juice to quench thirst

  • Limit juice to 8 ounces a day for children particularly

  • Eat whole fruit for most of your daily fruit servings

  • Mix juice with mineral water

100% fruit juice is high in vitamins like vitamin C and folate and also high in potassium – a mineral that helps keep blood pressure low. Some people with diabetes notice that some fruit juices raise their blood sugar, so they may need to limit juices. That makes sense. Otherwise, some juice every day can be good for you! For people who like juice, I recommend drinking a cup a day to count as one of your daily fruits and then eating whole fruit for the rest of your servings! 

Beth Kitchin, PhD, RDN
Assistant Professor, Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Auerbach BJ, Wolf FM, Hikida A, et al. Fruit Juice and Change in BMI: A Meta-analysis Pediatrics. 2017;139(4):e20162454

Monday, March 6, 2017

Taking a Closer Look at Eye Supplements


If you’re taking a nutritional supplement for your eyes, you might want to take a close look at what’s in it.

Back in 2001, a well-done study by the National Eye institute found that a specific combination of nutrients could slow down the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Macular degeneration is one of the biggest causes of blindness in people over the age of 65.

The landmark study is “AREDS” (Age-Related Eye Disease Study). The researchers randomly assigned over 3600 participants either to a placebo or to a high dose supplement. The researchers found that the participants on the AREDS supplement reduced their risk of progressing to advanced disease by about 25%. The researchers also looked at whether the supplement had an effect on cataracts. It did not.

The Original AREDS Formula:

500 mg vitamin C
400 IU’s vitamin E
15 mg beta-carotene OR Lutein/Zeaxanthin
80 mg zinc (as zinc oxide)
2 mg copper (as cupric acid)

While this was great news for people with macular degeneration, there were some problems with the supplement:

1.    The high amount of supplemental beta-carotene had been shown in other studies to increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers.
2.    The high level of zinc caused stomach upset in some of the study participants
3.    The original formula did not have lutein or zeaxanthin or omega-3 fatty acids which some researchers thought might help

So, researchers started the AREDS 2 study to answer these questions.

They found that cutting the beta-carotene and replacing it with lutein and zeaxanthin was effective and safer. They also found that the omega-3 fatty acids did not slow down macular degeneration. So now we have the new AREDS 2 formula that came out several years ago. They also found that reducing the zinc didn’t change the effectiveness.

Here’s what you should look for in an eye supplement:

AREDS 2 Formula:

500 mg vitamin C
400 IU vitamin E
10 mg lutein
2 mg zeaxanthin
80 mg zinc
2 mg copper
These amounts are much higher than what you could get in your diet or in a typical vitamin/mineral supplement.  Of course, after the first AREDS study came out, sales of eye supplements boomed. But some of these eye supplements are not the AREDS formula and probably won’t give you the results you want.

The supplement only helped people at the intermediate and advanced of macular degeneration. People in the early stages did not see much benefit. So this high-dose supplementation is only for people with intermediate or advanced stage macular degeneration and should only be taken under the supervision of an eye doctor.

The Bottom Line: If you have macular degeneration, talk to your doctor about which eye supplement is best for you.  Read the labels carefully to make sure they have the right combination of nutrients in them.  If you are shopping for the supplement, you need to compare directly the label on the bottle with the information from the National Eye Institute.  And remember, if you do not have macular degeneration, there is no proof that an eye health supplement will help prevent diseases of the eye!

For more information on eye supplements, the ARED2 study, and advice on whether you need an eye health supplement, visit the National Eye Institute site. 

Beth Kitchin PhD RDN
Assistant Professor, Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Lower Your Risk of Breast Cancer with these 3 Science Supported Habits

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. One in eight women will get breast cancer in her lifetime. Medical treatment can cure it in many women. However, experts estimate that 40,700 women will die of breast cancer this year. Like all women, I want to know how to reduce my risk. I don’t have a family history of breast cancer – but many women who get it don’t have one either. So, I went looking for the best evidence on what we can do to lower our risk.  One of best websites for solid, science based cancer prevention recommendations is the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR). They estimate that 33% of all breast cancer cases in the U.S. are preventable. That means 81,400 women who could avoid breast cancer. But how?

You can’t avoid all of the risk factors for breast cancer. Age and genetics increase your risk and you can’t do much about them. But there are some things you do have control over. Research shows that these three steps may actually lower your risk:   

Lower Your Breast Cancer Risk:
1.    Get to – and Stay – at a Healthy Weight
Extra body fat correlates with post-menopausal breast cancer risk. About 1 in 5 cases of breast cancer is in women with extra body fat. Fat tissue increases inflammation and hormones that promote cancer cell growth. Overweight and obesity correlate with 10 other cancers as well.

2.    Be Physically Active Every Day
Exercise helps lower the risk of both pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer risk. It can help you stay at a healthy weigh and boost the immune system. Thirty minutes a day may be all you need! It can be any activity – walking, gardening, dancing, swimming, hiking and the list goes on!

3.    Limit Alcohol
Alcohol can act as a carcinogen in the breast tissue. It can damage DNA and increase hormones that promote cancer. Women should limit alcohol to no more than one drink a day or seven per week on average. Less is best when it comes to alcohol and cancer risk. 

Now, those three are the most evidence-based recommendations. There’s a lot of interest in Mediterranean diets and the risk of cancers. One recent study showed that a Mediterranean eating style – particularly nuts and olive oil – reduces breast cancer risk. The study was a randomized controlled trial. That’s the kind of study that can actually show cause and effect. It's a really strong study design. But it’s just one study – so we can’t really make recommendations on it just yet. Also, the women in the study were eating around four tablespoons of olive oil a day! That’s a lot to work into your diet (although I’m pretty sure I’m getting at least two to three a day!). Some new research is also linking smoking with breast cancer.

But at least for now, you can take these three steps and rest assured that you’re doing all you can to lower your risk!

Beth Kitchin, PhD, RDN
Assistant Professor, Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Sources:

The American Institute for Cancer Research (www.aicr.org)

JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(11):1752-1760. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.4838

Published online September 14, 2015. Corrected on November 2, 2015.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

What Those Food Product Dates Really Mean

Should you toss out those eggs or that carton of milk just because it’s past the “best if used by” date? What does it really mean?
You may be surprised to learn that food producers are not required to put product dating on foods – with one exception: baby food. But, food manufacturers often do put dates on foods. While that can be a good thing, it can also lead to a lot of food waste.

Here are just a few common dates you'll see on food labels and what they mean: 
·         "Best if Used By/Before" tells you when a food will be of best flavor or quality. It is not a purchase or safety date.

·          "Sell-By" tells the store how long to display the product for sale for inventory management. It is not a safety date.

·         "Use-By" is the last date recommended for the use of the food while at peak quality.

Most of the time, the food is still good for a few days (sometimes longer) past these dates. Now, two big food industry groups are trying to decrease the confusion about what these dates mean. The Grocery Manufacturers Association and the Food Marketing Institute are now recommending using only two dates: “best if used by" or “use by”. Manufacturers should use “best if used by” on foods you can use past that date. They should use the “use by” date on foods that really could be unsafe if they sit on the shelf or in the fridge too long.

These are just guidelines but the hope is that most food companies will be using them by sometime in 2018. We hope this will cut down on food waste but it could also be good for your budget!


So how do you know if a food should be thrown out? Give it a sniff. If it smells off, then throw it out. If you see mold or deterioration, definitely throw it out. In the case of hard cheese, you can cut away the mold and it’s still safe to eat. But my big tip is to freeze foods if you know you won’t be able to use it up soon after the date. This works particularly well with meats, shredded cheeses, and breads but just about anything can be frozen (with a few exceptions)! For more information on how long you should keep foods, what to do when the power goes out for a long time, and what foods freeze well, go to www.foodsafety.govhttps://www.foodsafety.gov/. This is a great website for learning about how to keep foods safe and maximize food quality. 

Beth Kitchin, PhD, RDN
Assistant Professor, Nutrition Sciences
University of Alabama at Birmingham